What is GITRL

Creative Biolabs provides our customers with knowledge sharing related to immune checkpoint ligands GITRL to explore the complexities and unveil the role of GITRL.

Introduction to GITRL

The immune system is a complex and dynamic network that coordinates the body's defense mechanisms against foreign agents such as pathogens, cancer cells, and other abnormal cells. Immune checkpoint receptors and ligands play a critical role in regulating the immune response by maintaining a balance between activation and suppression of immune cells. Among these checkpoint receptors and ligands, the glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) and its ligand GITRL have emerged as promising targets for cancer immunotherapy.

GITRL, also known as TNFSF18, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, a group of cytokines that regulate immune cell function and survival. GITRL is expressed on the surface of various immune cells, including dendritic cells, macrophages, B cells, and T cells, and is involved in the regulation of T cell activation and differentiation.

Individual human GITR–GITRL and mouse GITR–GITRL heterodimers.Fig. 1 Individual human GITR–GITRL and mouse GITR–GITRL heterodimers. (Wang F, et al., 2021)

Receptor that Binds to GITRL

GITRL binds to its receptor GITR, which is expressed on the surface of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and effector T cells. The interaction between GITRL and GITR promotes the activation and proliferation of effector T cells and enhances their ability to kill cancer cells. At the same time, the GITRL-GITR pathway inhibits the suppressive function of Tregs, leading to the activation of antitumor immune responses.

Application of GITRL

The convoluted intricacies of the GITRL-GITR pathway have elicited much interest in its potential as an enticing target for the purview of cancer immunotherapy.

  • Preclinical analyses have rendered promising findings, wherein the application of GITRL or GITR agonists has led to the potentiation of the antitumor immune response, thereby impeding tumor growth in a myriad of murine models of cancer.
  • A burgeoning body of research has indicated that the utilization of GITR agonists in concert with other immunotherapeutic agents, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, confers an even greater augmentative effect upon the antitumor immune response, thus evincing the potential for substantial improvement in the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.

Research Services We Offer

We offer a wide range of research services to support GITRL-related research and drug development. Our team of experts has extensive experience in the design, production, and characterization of recombinant proteins and antibodies.

  • We offer a variety of GITRL-related products, including recombinant GITRL protein, GITR agonists, and anti-GITRL antibodies, which can be used for in vitro and in vivo studies of GITRL function and therapeutic potential.
  • In addition, we provide customized services for the development of GITRL-based immunotherapies. Our services include antibody discovery, bispecific antibody development, antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) development, and CAR-T cell therapy development. With our state-of-the-art facilities and cutting-edge technologies, we are committed to providing high-quality services to support GITRL-related research and drug development.

In addition to the research services mentioned earlier, Creative Biolabs offers a wide range of additional GITRL-related services to support research and drug development efforts, including bioinformatics analysis, high-throughput screening, protein engineering, PK/PD studies, in vitro and in vivo assays, toxicology studies.

Creative Biolabs has extensive experience in the field of immunotherapy, and we are dedicated to advancing the development of new and innovative immune checkpoint therapies for cancer and other diseases.


  1. Wang F, et al. Structures of mouse and human GITR–GITRL complexes reveal unique TNF superfamily interactions. Nature Communications, 2021, 12(1): 1378.
  2. Buzzatti G, et al. New emerging targets in cancer immunotherapy: the role of GITR. ESMO open, 2019, 4: e000738.

All listed customized services & products are for research use only, not intended for pharmaceutical, diagnostic, therapeutic, or any in vivo human use.