Probiotic Metabolites Effectively Promote Immune Checkpoints for Antitumor Therapy

Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when consumed in sufficient amounts, can provide a variety of health benefits. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health and digestion. However, recent advances have revealed their wide-ranging potential to influence the immune system.

Role of microbial metabolites on the immune system.Fig. 1 Role of microbial metabolites on the immune system.1

Probiotic Metabolites

Probiotic metabolites are metabolic by-products of probiotic microorganisms. In recent years, these small molecules have attracted much attention for their ability to modulate immune responses. Their role in promoting immune checkpoints for anti-tumor therapy is an exciting avenue to explore.

One such metabolite is short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are produced by certain probiotics in the gut.

SCFA, including butyrate, acetate, and propionate, have been shown to have a profound effect on the immune system. The potential to unlock these metabolites may be key to enhancing anti-tumor immune responses.

Interactions between Probiotic Metabolites and Immune Checkpoints

The relationship between probiotic metabolites and immune checkpoint regulation is a promising area of research. Several studies have shown that probiotic metabolites, particularly SCFA, can influence the expression of immune checkpoint proteins such as PD-1 and PD-L1.

  • Restoring Immune Balance. Probiotic metabolites can help restore immune balance by regulating the activity of immune checkpoints.
  • Reducing Inflammation. Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of cancer. Probiotic metabolites exhibit anti-inflammatory properties, which may help mitigate inflammation-driven immune checkpoint dysregulation.
  • Enhancing Immunogenic Cell Death. Certain probiotic metabolites have shown the ability to promote immunogenic cell death, a process where cancer cells emit signals that alert the immune system. This can lead to a stronger immune response against the tumor.
  • Combating Immunosuppressive Tumor Microenvironment. Probiotic metabolites have been shown to alter the tumor microenvironment, making it less immunosuppressive. This change can facilitate the infiltration of immune cells into the tumor, improving antitumor immune responses.

Specific Projects in Research

Research on probiotic metabolism for immune checkpoint therapy is ongoing, and we give some relevant examples of what is being studied. You can also check the latest scientific literature for the most up-to-date information.

  • SCFA has been shown to affect immune checkpoint molecules such as PD-1 and CTLA-4. Probiotics induce the production of SCFA, which has immunomodulatory effects.
  • Probiotic metabolite-induced anti-PD-L1 antibody enhances immune checkpoint blockade.
  • Gut microbiota regulate tumor immune checkpoint efficacy.
  • The gut microbiota, some of whose metabolites interact with immune checkpoints, influences the pancreatic cancer microenvironment.

The symbiotic relationship between probiotic metabolites and immune checkpoints offers a compelling avenue for the development of novel and effective cancer therapies. Our team of dedicated scientists is at the forefront of unraveling the complex interactions between probiotic metabolites and immune checkpoints. Through rigorous experimentation and extensive research, Creative Biolabs is working tirelessly to develop new therapies.


  1. Zhao, Haobin, et al. "Effect of gut microbiota-derived metabolites on immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy: Enemy or friend?" Molecules 27.15 (2022): 4799.

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