Engineering and Optimization of Immune Checkpoint Antibody
Immune checkpoints, expressed on T cells, antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and tumor cells, modulate the homeostasis of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory signals, which are critical to maintaining immune tolerance. Creative Biolabs offers a range of engineering and optimization of immune checkpoint antibody services, supported by an experienced team of scientists working with the latest technology.
About Immune Checkpoints
Currently, many immune checkpoints are well-studied, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1), PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4).
PD-1 is a co-inhibitory surface molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is mainly expressed on activated T and B lymphocytes. After transcriptional activation, PD-1 impairs T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated downstream signaling and augments the migration of T cells in the tissue. PD-1 binds to two ligands: PD-L1, widely expressed in tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells, and PD-L2, which shows a selective and narrow expression on inactivated macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs).
CTLA-4 is referred to as a CD28 homolog and is chiefly expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. This protein competes with CD28 to interact with the CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) proteins on APCs. CTLA-4 possesses a greater affinity for CD80/CD86 than CD28. CTLA-4 downregulates T cell immune responses within the early activation stage through several mechanisms, hindering the solid touch between APCs and T cells, recruiting a phosphatase to attenuate TCR signaling, inhibiting cell cycle progression.
Engineering and Optimization Services of Immune Checkpoint Antibody
With years of experience in antibody engineering and our most devoted scientists, Creative Biolabs is the ideal partner for your immune checkpoint antibody engineering and optimization projects. Our staff has the operational grit and scientific background that you need for your success. Through efficient management and proactive communication, we will help you achieve your antibody engineering goals over your immune checkpoint antibody development lifecycle. Currently, we take advantage of many strategies to help customers design the expected immune checkpoint antibody, including but not limited to:
Creative Biolabs not only provides best-in-class antibody engineering and optimization services but also offers a range of solutions to adapt to each project's specifications carefully. Our professional team is also willing to share our long-standing experience with global customers. If you want to know more information, please directly contact us.
All listed customized services & products are for research use only, not intended for pharmaceutical, diagnostic, therapeutic, or any in vivo human use.