Immune checkpoints are regulators to enhance or moderate immune responses. Immune checkpoint mechanisms are often
activated to suppress the nascent anti-tumor immune response, which leads to the development of several immune
checkpoint inhibitors, such as antibodies, peptides, and small molecular drugs for cancer therapy. Combined with
broad technological expertise and the latest instrumentation, Creative Biolabs is dedicated to
offering a wide range of immune checkpoint development services, including antibodies, proteins, peptides, assays,
small molecular drugs, and more. Our experienced team can also save you time by providing customer service to meet
Introduction to Immune Checkpoints and Immune Checkpoint Blockade (ICB)
Immune checkpoint is a kind of molecule in the immune system that either enhances (co-stimulatory molecules) or
inhibits (co-inhibitory molecules) immune responses. Therefore, immune checkpoints can be divided into two kinds of
Co-stimulatory immune checkpoints
Co-stimulatory checkpoints deliver positive signals to T cells following their binding to ligands and receptors
on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). They can stimulate immune responses, including but not limited to CD27,
CD40, OX40, GITR, 4-1BB, CD28, and ICOS.
Co-inhibitory immune checkpoints
Co-inhibitory checkpoints deliver negative signals to T cells upon interaction with their counterparts on the
APCs. They can inhibit immune responses, including PD1, PD-L1, CTLA-4, VISTA, CD155/TIGIT, TIM-3, and more. The
upregulation of co-inhibitory immune checkpoints hampers the immune response toward tumor cells and facilitates
the tumor cells' ability to evade immunosurveillance.
Fig.1 Co-stimulatory and
co-inhibitory molecules and their cognate ligands. (de Coaña, 2015)
Physiologically, co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory immune checkpoints and other molecules function to keep a
of the immune system. In cancer, the inhibitory immune checkpoints are often overexpressed on tumor cells or
non-transformed cells within the tumor microenvironment and hamper the immune system to mount an effective
anti-tumor response. Therefore, immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is one of the current most promising approaches
activating therapeutic antitumor immunity and circumventing the immune resistance exhibited by many tumors.
Immune Checkpoint Development Services
Building upon deeply understanding of the signaling pathways and implications of immune checkpoint molecules, Creative Biolabs has developed a full-scale platform to develop immune checkpoint-associated
antibodies, proteins, peptides, assays, small molecular drugs, etc. to meet different demands from our
Known for our deeply-rooted expertise and abundant experience in immunotherapy, Creative Biolabs is
confident in offering high-quality immune checkpoint development services to accelerate your project of
immunotherapeutics. If you want to get more information, please feel free to contact
de Coaña, Y. P.; et al. Checkpoint blockade for cancer therapy: revitalizing a suppressed immune
system. Trends in molecular medicine. 2015, 21(8): 482-491.
All listed customized services & products are for research use only, not intended for pharmaceutical, diagnostic, therapeutic, or any in vivo human use.